I am regularly updating my blog with new progress reports. They don’t appear as new blogposts as all updates appear under the same permalink. Go here to read about the commission: https://lucychurchill.wordpress.com/2013/05/26/lucychurchillblogpost/
Post 10: The finished sculpture :>)
I’ve been so busy (preparing for the installation of the sculpture, teaching my Stone Carving Workshops and working on my next commission) that I haven’t had time to write about the final stages of carving but here at least is a video and some photos of the finished piece.
The figure of Mary Magdalen(e) is going to be installed the the school garden straight after Easter, so that she’ll be ready and waiting when the children come back after the holidays. I’ve enjoyed the unusual situation of having the finished sculpture in my workshop for a few weeks as it’s given me the opportunity to look at her in different lights at different times of day. I like the way her expression changes depending on the way the light falls across her face. Sometimes she looks questioning (when the the arch of her eyebrow is lit), sometimes she looks like she is about to say something, or smile (when her lips are highlighted), but I think in all lights she looks kind, and that is what I hoped for.
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN TO READ POSTS ABOUT THE EARLIER STAGES OF THE COMMISSION
Post 9: Getting closer to the finished sculpture
Much stone has been chipped away since my last post. I thought it might be interesting to start this update to show you some pictures of the tools I’ve been using, and then what I’ve done with them.
An electric die-grinder (a small circular saw).
This tool is particularly useful on very hard stones. I used it to cut outlines around the areas I wanted to safeguard, and then cut deep lines into the surfaces that I wanted to remove. This is because it’s easier to knock away large areas of stone with a hammer and chisel if you weaken the stone by cutting channels into it first. With practice you can also use this tool to carve with.
First stage hand tools. From left to right they are: Lump hammer, pitcher, punch, point, claw, small claw.
You can almost tell from their names alone that they are heavy, hard working tools. These tools are usually only used in the first stages of the masonry/carving process when they can crudely, but swiftly knock off large chunks of stone. The claw is the exception as it will be useful until just before the very end. (Some sculptors choose to leave the claw marks showing in their final carving, but I won’t on this particular sculpture. I will leave fine chisel marks as this subtly affects the way light falls across sculpture, making it appear more three-dimensional and interesting to look at – but I think leaving the claw marks wouldn’t be appropriate for this particular piece).
In this photo you can see how the masoned block is crudely but systematically cut into and areas of stone removed. At each stage I get rid of the stone that is most obviously not needed (either as part of the finished form, or as a reference point). This approach reminds me of the Sherlock Holmes quote: ‘Once you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth’. Often people ask me if I can ‘see the sculpture inside the block of stone’. I answer, it’s not quite ‘seeing’ the sculpture – but seeing the stone that isn’t necessary. At this stage seeing the excess stone is easy, but this approach holds true right until the sculpture is finished.
A sample of carving tools for the later stages.
On the left is a nylon mallet and on the right is a brass ‘dummy’ mallet. They are as heavy as the lump hammer but instead of crashing down onto the chisel head, the curved surface makes the mallet bounce back allowing the carver to hammer more rhythmically, creating smoother, flowing lines. An even smaller, lighter dummy will be used for carving very fine details such as the face.
Once most of the excess stone had been removed from the block, I started to refine the form. I started with the skirt and only when I felt happy with that worked upwards. This is because I wanted the skirt to act almost like a plinth – a strong smooth shape that would anchor Mary Magdalen firmly to the ground, with the angle of the cloth directing your eye upwards ther hands holding the urn.
After the shape has been found using a claw, the form is refined with a mallet and chisel. Then the broad planes are smoothed with a file. Using a file helps to detect unresolved lumps and bumps on the surface, but the final surface will be re-textured using mallet and chisel. A filed surface can look too ‘perfect’ and without any contrasting textures to catch the light, the finished sculpture can seem flat and life-less.
This photo shows the transition from the geometric lines of the masoned block to the flowing curves of the emerging sculpture. You can see the grid marks at various points on the stone. It is important not to get rid of reference points until they are no longer useful.
Once I felt I’d secured the simple angles of Mary Magdalen’s skirt I concentrated on establishing the shape of her shoulders and arms as these form an important frame around the urn that she is holding. The folds of the shawl are designed to lead your eye to the urn, so it was important to get the forms flowing smoothly to and from this central feature. You can see that I left the head as a masoned block while I concentrated on finding the shape of the skirt and shawl. This might seem strange but I knew that I would look more critically at these simple, subtle forms if I wasn’t distracted by more complex and interesting features such as her face and hands. For this reason I wanted to get these simple planes right at the start. The skirt and shawl are by no means finished – lumps and bumps still need to be removed, and the folds and outlines need to be cut in (which will make a dramatic difference) , but for now they are at a stage where I can shape the head and hands. When the basic shape and position of these features have established, I will go over the sculpture as a whole, cutting in details and sharpening the lines of folds and edges. This will suddenly bring the form into focus .
I made the template out of a bit of old cardboard by drawing the silhouette of my maquette’s profile and cutting out this shape so that it fitted loosely over the plaster head. I held the template up to the stone block and chiselled away until the template fitted the stone snugly. This meant that the shape was recreates in the stone, but there was still a generous amount of stone (about 5 mm above the final surface) to play with . This will allow me some freedom to make decisions about the final form during carving.
Here you can see Mary Magdalen’s profile based on the simplified template.
The overall shape of the sculpture has been established, and now it’s time to cut in the details.
The big important forms have now been found and the details now just need to be cut in. Until now I’ve been wielding my hammer or large mallet in a fairly carefree manner to remove fairly large chunks of stone . From now on however, I must switch to a smaller mallet or my brass dummy, and work with much greater care and precision as I get closer to the final surface of my figure.
At the moment the surface is still about 5mm above that which it should be, according to the plaster model – but this allows me to make small tweaks and changes to the design. Even though I am making a faithful recreation of my original clay maquette, clay and stone are very different materials and some aspects are impossible, or inappropriate, to try and reproduce as a carving. Therefore it’s important to allow some room for manoeuvre so that I can find the right way to express these details in stone. This slight leeway also allows the forms to flow naturally from one form to another as a record of the carving process. This will give the carving a sense of life and immediacy, making it more than merely a slavish copy of the smaller plaster model.
The next update will be when I can show you the finely carved details….
Post 8: Final preparations, and then at last the carving begins.
After the summer holidays I didn’t return straight away to the Mary Magdalen project. I ran several Stone Carving Workshops here in my workshop, teaching adults how to carve stone. Each course only lasts 3 days, but by the end of the workshop the students have learn enough tools skills to carry on carving on their own (though most come back year after year as the workshops are such fun).
I also did some work on the commission that I will work on after Mary Magdalen is complete. Because the whole process takes so long (the initial consultation and decision making, and stone selection and ordering in the early stages) you have to start the next job rolling before the last is finished.
Here is a picture of me with some of the students on my Stone Carving Workshop
In between these courses and my consultations, I modelled a full sized maquette of Mary Magdalen’s head and cast both my foot and my hands so that when I come to carve these features in stone I have something to refer to for the details.
At first I sculpted her skull and then gradually added her features; nose, mouth, eyes, ears and lastly hair. Even though her skull and ears are hidden by the hair it helps to model these correctly so that the final form looks right. The eyes and hair will be more detailed when carved in stone, but in this maquette I just wanted to establish the overall shape.
Not every stonecarver goes into such detailed preparation before carving a sculpture. In fact, in the early 20th century there was a revolution by sculptors such as Constantin Brancusi and Henry Moore against using maquettes and the pointing method, in favour of what they called Direct Carving. They thought it was better to just pick up a chisel and get stuck in, and find the shape of the sculpture in response to the stone.
I use a different approach for several reasons; my work is almost always to commission, and this way I can give my client a good idea of what they will be getting for their money and reassure them that they won’t be getting a sculpture that they didn’t expect. Also, direct carving works best if you have time to ‘get into the zone’ and lose yourself in your carving (which is very, very enjoyable) . Because I have kids who are still at school I need to keep my eye on the clock so that I don’t leave them stranded at school. Using maquettes helps me know exactly where I am going with my carving, even if I need to stop and start many times.
Lastly, the most frequently question that people ask stonecarvers is ‘What do you do if you make a mistake?!!?’. There is a stone glue that does a pretty good job at sticking back bits of stone that chip off by accident, but the truth is, with this amount of preparation, accidents very rarely happen. For me it’s this level of thought and concentration, balanced with the physical activity of breaking and shaping stone, that makes stonecarving so enjoyable; you just can’t drift off and think about other things, and so the act of carving is totally consuming and, despite the physical labour, very refreshing.
Here you can see how I have transferred the details from the flat line drawing onto the angled planes of the masoned stone block. The maquette of Mary’s head, now cast in plaster is in the foreground.
At this stage it’s a case of figuring out which bits of stone are definitely not needed, and which bits of stone have useful information drawn on. In the first photo you can see that I am using the line drawing on the side of the stone to help me find how far I should take down the front surface (see the urn and the drapery). You can see the tools that I am using in the foreground. I use an electric tool called a die-grinder to cut quickly and deeply into the block, and then break off the excess stone and begin to shape forms with fairly simple chisels using a hammer or mallet.
After eons of careful preparation this is where stonecarving becomes very physical and messy. Portland stone has a very distinctive smell when carved – the fossils embedded in the rock release a strong and fishy smell when the stone is first broken open. It’s quite breathtaking and takes some getting used to. At the end of the day I am covered in a fine powdery dust made by the die-grinder, and many small chunks of stone have found their way into my hair and down my neck. This is where carving goes ‘off road’ – through a veil of dust and sweat I have to translate my careful preparations into a convincing and moving piece of sculpture in stone. The final piece has to be more than an exact translation of my design, it has to have its own sense of life. Wish me well :>)
In this photo you can see how the square block of stone has been masoned into a simple version of the figure. The scale drawings in the foreground were used to work out which bits of stone should be kept for the final carving, and the angle-grinder was used to cut away what wasn’t needed.
After the summer holidays I’ll cut into the flat surfaces of the masoned block, and begin the process of carving. I’ll still refer to the plaster maquette, but from now on I will need to work much more instinctively to create forms that flow and convey emotion.
Year 4 Commended goes to:
Gabriel and Tyron….
Both these drawings are bursting with joyfulness. Gabriel’s is wonderfully detailed, and Tyron’s is so simple but gives out a powerful sense of love.
Both of you have produced lovely drawings with lots of careful detail. I love the bird Eleanor, and Mary’s beautiful dress Ronnie.
and Emma and Irene….
Both Emma and Irene wrote about what Mary Magdalen means to them on a personal level – and produced very serend pictures.
and Lucas and Hannah :>)
Both of you have chosen to tackle interesting poses. Well done. I also love your backdrop Lucas, and your colour scheme Hannah.
Year 5 Highly Commended goes to: Jude and Therese
Jude’s Mary Magdalen has a lovely beaming smile and the message is simple and strong. Therese’s Mary is calm and serene, and her hand gesture is lovely. Beautiful work!
And a BIG THANK YOU goes to: Rebecca and Rebecca in Year 3, Dairon, Alexander, Mathias, Pharrell, David,Lewis, Alessia, Cian, Matt, Sadie Emily Micai, Lara, Mia, Myleene, Kyle, Claran, Shania and Kyah in Year 4, and Nicole in Year 5.
Lewis’s wonderful drawing below shows how fantastic the competition was. It was impossible to chose the best as they all had something wonderful going on.
I shall love having your work up on my wall as I carve the sculpture of St Mary Magdalen for your sensory garden. Thank you all so much x x
Video number 6:
The children at St Mary Magdalen School sent me some lovely work inspired by their patron saint, St Mary Magdalen. This video is a quick thank you to them.
I will be uploading pictures of their work early next week, and announcing prizes for some of the best contributions (a difficult decision because they are all in own way excellent).
Post 4: The stone finally arrives and I can get started.
A close up of the stone which I have chosen for the base. It’s a limestone known as Great Tew Ironstone. I chose this stone because of it’s lovely warm colour and interesting texture. The swirling layers show how the stone was formed millions of years ago.
A close up of the stone that Mary Magdalen will be carved from. It is a limestone called Portland Stone. It is quarried form the island of Portland in Dorset, and is famous for its smooth texture, hardwearing quality. If you look closely at the sculpture you might see the occasional fossil embedded in the stone.
David Crowe Dave is one of the best lettercutters in England, and a very fine carver, but he’s also excellent at handling large blocks of stone. He was on hand when the stone was delivered, and is going to help me to install the finished sculpture at St Mary Magdalen School. Here he is drilling a deep hole into the centre of the stone, so that we can attach the finished sculpture to the base stone using stainless steel rods. Even though the pieces of stone won’t be attached until the end, it’s best to get this job done at the start.
I then marked out very clearly which areas I can cut away with my angle grinder tomorrow. I will start by cutting the side profile and then redraw my markings onto the top surface of what is left, and cut out the front to back profile.
Using the maquette and a perspex box to make very exact line drawings which are then marked onto the stone.
The original model cracked up as the clay dried out and shrank over the wire. But that doesn’t matter because I have an exact plaster copy which was made using a fibreglass and silicon rubber mould.
Video number 4: In which I talk about the plaster mould and how I started to construct a measuring box:
A step-by-step account of how I made and used my measuring box:
I taped the panels together to make a sturdy box whose inside dimensions are exactly half that of my block of Portland stone. By placing the maquette inside the box, it is easy to see how the figure fits within the block, and figure out which bits of stone can be cut away.
I then got some long thin sticks by taking apart a sushi-making roll, and poked them through the holes which I had drilled into the panel. I went around the figure, trying to get as close as possible without actually touching the model. The result was an outline of sticks which gave me a simple profile (like a cookie cutter) and showed which bits of stone I won’t need to make the sculpture.
Using graph paper to make a scale drawing, I marked down the positions of each bamboo stick, and joined the dots together to record the 4 different profiles. I then simplified the outline into a series of straight lines.
This simple outline shows me which areas of stone can be cut off the block of stone using an angle-grinder. An angle-grinder is an electric saw used for removing large chunks of stone. This is very time saving in the early stages of a sculpture, and is known as Masonry. The later stages of stone cutting, when the shapes become more subtle and flowing, is called Carving.
Before beinning to cut into the stone there were a few more measurements I needed to take. This time I used the perspex grid and sticks to record much the finer details of my maquette.
I dipped the end of a stick into paint, and poked it through the holes until it touched the maquette leaving a small coloured dot on the plaster. A set-square helped me check that the stick went in at 90% so that the dot was at the same level as the hole. This enabled me to record the exact position of each particular feature.
Using multiple grid positions I was able to translate a complex three-dimensional shape into a highly accurate line drawing. I then scaled up my drawings and used carbon paper to transfer the information onto the 4 sides of the stone block.
I used a perspex box and a stick, but in the past sculptors used the same method by constructing a wooden frame around their maquette, and attaching vertical and horizontal lengths of string across the frame to form a measuring grid. There are other pointing techniques and a specific piece of equipment that you can buy called a ‘pointing machine’, but the box method is cheap to make and just as easy to use.
The First Stage – Making a maquette
After I’d been given the go-ahead for my design, I made a maquette (a small preliminary model) of the sculpture in clay. This was so that I could examine it from all sides to check that it not only looked good, but was structurally sound (no vulnerable bits that might easily get knocked off) and would weather well (no hollows where water could collect and cause problems when it froze in the winter). Making a maquette is a good idea as it’s much easier to make adjustments in clay than in stone.
1) I made a basic figure out of wire and tape, using a model skeleton to check that the proportions were correct.
2) A clay body was then built up over the wire structure.
3) I quickly modelled a face onto the figure, but will model Mary Magdalen’s features more carefully in a separate, full sized maquette.
4) When I was happy that the figure resembled a young woman, I added clothing. A thin sheet of clay was wrapped around her shoulders like a shawl, and wedges of clay were used to build up her skirt (which also made the model more sturdy). It might seem strange to spend time modelling a figure only to mask it with clothes, but this approach makes it easier to get the right proportions and body posture.
5) My daughter kindly posed for me holding a jug. This was so that I could check that the pose looked natural and suitable for the role, but also wouldn’t pose problems when carved in stone.
6) I found that the best way to make a well shaped jar was to build it up using coils of clay – just like a potter might. I laid the coils around a ball of clay so that the finished jar wouldn’t squish or dry out too quickly.
7) The jar was attached to the figure using a bit of wire pressed into the clay. This meant that I didn’t have to hold it while I was positioning Mary’s hands around the jar, and that her arms didn’t actually need to carry the weight of the pot.
8) Once the jar was in place, Mary’s arms and hands could be covered in clay and set into position. While I working I wrapped the bits that I wasn’t working on in cling film so that the clay didn’t dry out too quickly.
9) I rolled out a square of clay and gathered it up to create realistic folds for her shawl.
10) When the fold had been placed over Mary’s arm, I added extra clay underneath, making sure that the shape remained the same. This means that when the form is recreated in stone it won’t be too delicate.
Once all the basic elements were in place, I took photographs from all angles, printed them out and stuck them up so that I could look at them from a distance. This helped me to see the shape of the sculpture with ‘a fresh eye’, and decide what changes I wanted to make or details I needed to add.
11) If you compare the two photos above you can see that the right foot has been moved outward. This makes it seem as if Mary is stepping forwards, and also works as a visual device; the folds of the skirt (and the shawl) lead your eye to Mary’s jar of ointment.
12) I asked my daughter to pose for me again so that I could see exactly how hair weaves in and out when plaited.
13) When I first built up the figure, I left her hair as a wedge of clay. By this stage it was ‘leather-hard’ and I could carve a neat plaited design into the clay.
14-17) Photos of the finished maquette. I find that looking at them in black and white helps to see the shapes more clearly. You can see that the sculpture is stylised, the features aren’t totally naturalistic. The forms and features have been simplified in order to emphasise Mary Magdalen’s gesture of service.
Post 1: My first video blog-post
Here is the first of a series of videos that I’ll be making to document the making of a sculpture of Mary Magdalen for the school Sensory Garden.
I hope to show what’s involved in creating a piece of sculpture in stone, from the initial idea to the final installation.
Video number 1: Introducing myself
Video number 2: Showing the clay scale model before it’s cast in plaster.
Video number 3: A better look at the scale model